The Relationship between the Academic Performance of Extroverts and Introverts in Offinso College of Education on Teacher-Trainees

August 23, 2018


The study examined the relationship between introverts, extroverts and academic achievement among College Teacher-trainees. The sample was made up of 117 males and 83 females. The extroverts and introverts were purposively and randomly sampled from first year Education college trainees of Offinso College of Education. The data collected was analyzed using the Cross tabulation, Chi-Square test and Pearson correlation. Per the Chi-Square test established a weak positive relationship between gender and personality which was not statistically significant ((1) =0.185, P=.667). A Pearson correlation revealed a weak negative correlation between introverts and their academic performance in the Child and Adolescent Development and Learning(CADL) course and a weak negative correlation between introverts and their academic achievement in Principles and Practice of Education and Curriculum (PPEC) course hence, rejecting the hypothesis of no significant relationship. A descriptive statistics of academic performance of introvert and extrovert Teacher-trainees revealed average scores for introvert and extrovert in CADL as 71.5% and 72.5% respectively and in PPEC were 64.5% and 67% for introvert and extrovert. This shows that there was no significant difference in the marks obtained by both personalities. The implication is that one’s personality type does not so much affect one’s academic performance.


Introverts, Extroverts, Academic performance, Extroversion, Introversion, Ambiversion


Achievement: Structural Equation Models of Longitudinal Data. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 41-54.

Allgeier, A. (1981). The influence of androgynous identification on heterosexual relations. Sex Roles, 7, 321-330.

Allport, G. W. (1961). Patterns and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Alonge, M. F. (2010). Essentials of research methods and design for educators. Bolabay publications. 12 Adogun Street, Abule Egba-Lagos.

Amatu, H. I. (1981). What is shyness? Psychology, 18, 30-40.

Amedahe, F. K. & Asamoah-Gyimah, E, (2001). Introduction to educational research. Module for Centre for Contiuining Education, University of Cape coast (CCEUCC) unpublished.

Ateel, Saqib, & Ali, (2005). Personality career tests.

Byrne, W. (1996). Academic self-concept: Its structure, measurement, and relation to academic achievement. In B. A. Bracken (Ed.). Handbook of self-concept.

Bartol & Bartol (2008). Criminal behaviour: A psychosocial approach. (8th ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Biemer, D. J. (1983). Shyness control. A systematic approach to social anxiety management in children. The School Counsellor, 31, 53-60.

Buss, A. H. & Cheek, J. M. (1981). Shyness and sociability. Journal of personality and social psychology, 41, 2, 330-339.

Camperio, A. S., Capiluppi, C., Veronese, A., Sartori, G. (2006). The adaptive value of personality differences revealed by small island population dynamics, European Journal of Personality, 21, 3–22.

Child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed.). VOL. 3. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Chastain, K. (1975). Affective and ability factors in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25, 153-161.

Costa, P. T. & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38,668.Council for the Gifted Journal, 7, 28–31.

Corey, G. (1958). Theory and practice of group counselling. California: Brooks Cole’s publishing company. Developmental approach (6th ed.). New York: McGraws-Hill.

Corey, G. (1982). Theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy. California: Brooks Cole’s publishing company.

Corey, G. (1992). Case approach to counselling and psychotherapy (2nd ed.), New York McGraw-Hill

Crowne, D. P.,& D. Marlowe. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Jon Wiley & Sons.

Crozier, W. R. (1990). Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology. New York: Cambridge University press.

Crozier, W. R. (2001). Shyness and embarrassment: Perspectives from social psychology. New York: Cambridge University press.

Cummins, J. (1980). The cross-lingual dimensions of language proficiency: Implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 175-87.

Depue, R. A., & Collins, P. F. (1999) Neurobiology of the structure of personality: Dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 22, 491–517.

Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas Publishing.

Eysenck, H. J. & Eysenck, S. G. B. (1965). The Eysenck personality inventory. British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Nov., 1965), p. 140 doi: 10.2307/3119050.

Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Readings in extraversion-introversion. New York: Wiley.

Eysenck, H. J. (1981). A model for personality. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Eysenck, H. J. and S. B. G. Eysenck.(1963). Eysenck personality inventory. SanDiego.

Fox, N. A., Schmidt, L. A., Rubin, K. H., & Coplan, R. J. (1996). The role of frontal activation in the regulation and deregulation of social behaviour during the preschool years. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 89-102.

Furnham, A., & Medhurst, S. (1995). Personality correlates of academic seminar behaviour: Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 197-208.

Gosling, S. (2008). Snoop. New York: Basic Books.

Gallagher, S.A. (1990). Personality patterns of the gifted. Understanding our Gifted. 3, 11–25.

Gunnar, M.R., Mangelsdorf, S., Larson, M., & Hertsgaard, L. (1989).Attachment, temperament, and adrenocortical activity in infancy: A study of psycho endocrine regulation. Developmental psychology, 25, 355-363.

Hoehn, L., & Birely, M.K. (1988). Mental process preferences of gifted children. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc.

Helgoe, Laurie (2008). Introvert power: Why your inner life is your hidden strength. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc.

Heist, P. and G. Yonge. (1962). Omnibus Personality Inventory.New York: The Psychological Corporation.

Irfani, S. (1978). Extroversion-introversion and self-rated academic success. Psychological Reports, 43, 505-510.

Johnson, D. M. (1983). Natural language learning by design: A classroom experimentation social interaction and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly,17, 55-67.

Johnson, D. L., Wiebe, J. S., Gold, S. M., Andreasen, N. C. (1999). Cerebral blood flow and personality: A positron emission tomography study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 252–257.

Jung, C.J. (1921). Psychologischen typen. RascherVerlag, Zurich – translation H.G. Baynes, 1923.

Kagan, J., Reznick, J.S., & Snidman, N. (1988) Biological basis of childhood shyness Science, 240,167- 171.

Kagan, J. & Snidman, N. (1991). Infant predictors of inhibited and uninhibited profiles. Psychological Science, 2, 40-44.

Kerr, K., Lambert, W. W.,& Bem, D. J. (1996). Life course Sequelae of Childhood Shyness in Sweden: Comparison with the United States. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1100-1105.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second Language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamum Press.

Kobasa, S. (1979). Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of personality and social psychology, 371 – 11.

Laney, Martin Olsen (2002). The introvert advantage: How to thrive in an extravert world. Workman Publishing.

Lasi, H. & Hoffman, M. A. (1982). Causal Attribution of shy subjects. Journal of Research in personality, 16,376-385.Microsoft student 2008 DVD.

Leitenberg, H. (1990). Handbook of social and evaluation anxiety. New York Harbinger.

Littlewood, W. T. (1983). Contrastive pragmatics and the foreign language learners’ personality. Cross-language Analysis and Second Language Acquisition, Finland: University of Jyvaskyla, 179-187.

Mattlin, J., Wethington, E., & Kessler, R. C. (1990).Situational determinants of coping and coping effectiveness.Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 31: 103- 122.

Marsh, H. W. (1986) .Verbal and mouth self-concepts: An internal/external frame of reference model. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 129-149.

Marsh, H. W., &Shavelson, R. J. (1985). Self-concept: Its multifaceted hierarchical structure. Educational Psychologist, 20, 107-125.

Marsh, H., Byrne, B., &Shavelson, R. (1988). A multi-faceted academic self –concept: Its hierarchical structure achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 366-380.

Martinson, W. D., &Zerface, J. P. (1970). Comparison of individual counselling and asocial programme with inundators.

McEwan, K. L. (1983). Perhaps it’s time to leave minimal daters alone. The Behaviour Therapist, p. 100-101.

Muijs, R. D. (1997) .Predictors of academic achievement and academic self-concept-a longitudinal perspective. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67,263-277.

Muehlenhard, C. L., & Miller, E. N. (1988). Traditional and non-traditional men’s responses to women’s dating initiation. Behaviour Modification, 12(3), 385-403.

Naiman, N., M. Frohlich, H., Stern, & A. Todesco. (1978).The good language learner. Research in Education No.7.Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Ofori &Dampson, (2011).Research Methods and Statistics using SPSS. Amakom-Kumasi Pacific Groove, C.A. Books/Cole Payless Publication Limited

Pavot, W., Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1990) .Extraversion and happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1299–1306.

Pritchard, D. F. L. (1952). An investigation into the relationship between personalities

traits and ability in modern languages. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 22,147-148.

Pilkonis. A. (1977). The behavioural consequences of shyness. Journal of Personality, 45,596-611.

Rentfrow, P. J., & Gosling, S. D. (2003). The do re mi's of everyday life: The structure and personality correlates of music preference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1236–1256.

Rossier, R. (1976). Extroversion-introversion as a significant variable in the learning of oral English as a second language. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California.

Rubin, K.H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J.G.(1998). Peer interactions relationships and groups (pp.619 -700). In W. Damon, and N. Eisenberg , Handbook

Segal, Stephen Rich (1988). Together Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol. 54, no.6.1031–1039.

Scarr, S., & Thompson, W. (1994). Effects of maternal employment and non-maternal infant care on development at two and four years. Early Development and Parenting, 3(2), 113123.

Sharma, R. S. (1980). Clothing behaviour, personality, and values: A correlational study. Psychological Studies, 25, 137–142.

Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of Construct Interpretations. Review of Educational Research.

Scheibner-Herzig, G., A. Thiele, G. Jelinek, S.& Kokoschka, S. (1984). A study of foreign language achievements and personality variables in 15-year-old pupils.

Walster, E., Walster, G. W., Piliavin, J., & Schmidt, L. (1973). Playing hard to get:

Understanding an elusive phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26 (1), 113-121.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1977). Shyness can be a quite yet devastating problem, learning, 6, 68-70.

Zimbardo, P. G., Pilkonis, P. A. & Norwood, R. M. (1974). The silent prison of shyness (DNR Tech. Rep. P. 17), Stanford University press. (Assessed 5-05 2012) (Assessed 10- 05 2012)

Today Magazine article (USA Today, March 2000).

Author Details

Augustine Adjei

Samuel Dontoh

Francis Boateng