Phytoremediation Potentials of Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) and Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens) on Crude Oil Impacted Soils

April 14, 2018


Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) have been observed in impacted soils hence their trial in this study as hyper accumulators of heavy metals. Microbiological and Physico-chemical studies of impacted soil were conducted before planting in plastic pots filled with 17000g of soils treated with 0 ml (T1), 50 ml (T2), 100 ml (T3) and 200 ml (T4) of crude oil.These treatments were replicated four times to give an observation of thirty-two experimental pots for both experiments. After twenty days of pollution, thetest plants were introduced and allowed to grow for 6 weeks (42 days). Tissue analyses of heavy metals were carried out on the shoot to determine their presence. Microbiology analyses such as THBC, THFC, HUB and HUF and the physicochemical parameters of all soil treatments such as pH, soil texture, Conductivity, % Carbon content and base metals were determined. The results show that Lead (Pb) was not detected in Plants tissues; Nickel was not also detected in T2 and T3 for Panicum maximum and not detected in T1, T3 and T4 for Mucuna pruriens. Cadmium (Cd) ranged from -0.020 mg/kg to -0.051 mg/kg and from -0.054 mg/kg to -0.070 mg/kg for Panicum maximum and Mucuna pruriens tissues respectively. Also, Chromium (Cr) ranged from -0.124 mg/kg to -0.119 mg/kg and from -0.146 mg/kg to -0.153 mg/kg for Panicum maximum and Mucuna pruriens tissues respectively. It can be concluded from the study that Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) didn’t significantly hyper accumulated the heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Chromium and Nickel) analysed.


Phytoremediation, Crude oil,, Panicum maximum, Velvet Bean, Heavy metals


Ahmadpour P., Ahmadpour F., Mahmud T.M.M., Arifin A., Soleimani M. and Hosseini T. F.; 2012. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: A green technology, African Journal of Biotechnology 11(76): 14036-14043

Alkorta I., Hernandez-Allica J., Becerril J. M, Amezaga I., Albizu I., Garbisu C.; 2004.

‘Recent findings on the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic’, reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 3: 71-90.

Ann M. M., 2001. Thesis: Phytoremediation of heavy metal Contaminated soil, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala,

Appenroth K.J.; 2010. The Definition of Heavy Metals in Plant Science, Soil Heavy Metals, Soil Biology, Vol 19: DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-02436-8_2.

Audrone J., and Saolius V.; 2005. Remediation technologies for soils contaminated with heavy metals, Journal of Environmental engineering and landscape management, xiii(2): 109a-113a.

Barałkiewicz D. and Siepak J; 1999. Chromium, Nickel and Cobalt in Environmental Samples and Existing Legal Norms, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 8(4): 201-208

Beiergrohslein E.; 1998. ‘The use of surfactants in removal of zinc, lead and cadmium from contaminated soils’, Pestic, Biochem. physiol, 13: 267-273

Bruce E. Pivetz; 2001. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites, United States Environmental Protection, EPA/540/S-01/500.

Chhotu D. J. and Fulekar M. H.; 2008. Phytoremediation of heavy metals, Recent techniques, African Journal of Biotechnology 8 (6): 921-928

David R.; 2005. Soil solution chemistry in a heavy metal contaminated forest model ecosystem. A dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich for the degree of Doctor of Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Ettler V, Vanek A, Mihaljevic M, Bezdicka P; 2005. ‘Contrasting lead speciation in forest and tilled soils heavily polluted by lead metallurgy’, Chemosphere 58(10): 1449-1459.

Gopamma D. and Srinivas N.; 2011. Effects of Soil Treatments amended with Organic Manure on Lubricant Oil Degradation, Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment 15(4)

Hemen S.; 2011. Metal Hyper accumulation in plants: A Review focusing on Phytoremediation Technology, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4(2): 118- 138

Hettiarachchi G.M., Nelson N.O., Agudelo Arbelaez S.C., Lemunyon J.L.; 2012. Phytoremediation: Protecting the Environment with Plants, Kansas State University, USA.

Inibehe G.U., Ineye D.E., and Nneoyi I.O.; 2013. Cointegration inferences on issues of poverty and population growth in Nigeria, Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 5(7): 277-283.

Isitekhale H.H.E., Aboh S.I., Edion R.I. and Abhanzioya M.I.; 2013.Remediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil with Inorganic and Organic Fertilizer Using Sweet Potato as a Test Crop, Journal of Environment and Earth Science 3 (7): 2224-3216

Jan M. and Malcolm S.C.; 1994:Biogeochemistry of Small Catchments: A Tool for Environmental Research, Edited by B. Moldan and J.Cerny, Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Jonnalagadda S. B and Rao P. V; 1993. ‘Toxicity, bioavailability and metal speciation’, Comparative biochemistry and physiology, Part C: Pharmacology, toxicology, and endocrinology 106(3): 585-595.

Krishna R. Reddy; 2013.Electrokinetic remediation of soils at complex contaminated sites: Technology status, challenges, and opportunities, Coupled Phenomena in Environmental Geotechnics – Manassero et al (Eds)Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978 1 138 00060 5

Lambert M., Leven B.A., and Green R.M.; 1990. New Methods of Cleaning Up Heavy Metal in Soils and Water Great,Plains/Rocky Mountain HSRC, Kansas State University, 101 Ward Hall Manhattan, KS 66506 (800) 798-7796

Liesbet Van Cauwenberghe; 1997. Electrokinetics, Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, O Series: TO-97-03

Manara A.; 2012. Plant responses to heavy metal toxicity, A. Furini (ed.), Plants and Heavy Metals, SpringerBriefs in Biometals, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-4441-7_2.

Ministry of Housing, Netherlands, Physical planning and Environmental Conservation. Report HSE 94.021 (1994).

Mitch M. L.; 2002.Phytoextraction of Toxic Metals: A Review of Biological Mechanisms Published in J. Environ. Qual. 31:109–120.

Nwilo P.C. and Badejo O.T.; 2010. Impacts and Management of Oil Spill Pollution along the Nigerian Coastal Areas.

Ochekwu, E. B. and Madagwa, B.; 2013. Phytoremediation potentials of water Hyacinth. Eichhornia Crassipes (mart.) Solms in crude oil polluted water, Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental management, 17(4): 503-507.

Olatunji O.S., Ximba B.J., Fatoki O.S., and Opeolu B.O.; 2014. Assessment of the phytoremediation potential of Panicum maximum (guinea grass) for selected heavy metal removal from contaminated soils, African journalsof Biotechnology13(19): 1979-1984.

Omosun, G.; Edeoga, H. O.; Markson, A. A. and Madunagu, B. E; 2010.Uptake of Lead, Nickel and Copper by three Mucuna species, International Journal of Current Research,4: 098-103

Osuji, L. C. and Onojake, C. M.; 2005. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Management79: 133-139.

Parisa Z. and Somaye A.; 2014. The Phytoremediation Technique for Cleaning up Contaminated Soil by Amaranthus sp., Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 4 (208): 2161-0525

Park J. H., Bolan N., Megharaj M.,Naidu R. and Chung J.W.; 2011. Bacterial-Assisted Immobilization of Lead in Soils: Implications for Remediation, Pedologist 162-174

Prasa M.N.V.; 2011: A State-of-the-Art report on Bioremediation, its Applications to Contaminated sites in India, Dept. of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderaba, India.

Priscila L.G., Majeti N.V., Patricia F.C., Peter J.L. and Ricardo A.A.; 2005. Phytoremediation: green technology for the clean-up of toxic metals in the environment, Braz. J. plant physiol. 17 (1): 53-64

Ralinda R. M.; 1996: Phytoremediation, Ground Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center 615 William Pitt Way, Pittsburgh, PA 15238.

Rasaq A.O., Gregory O.A., Olumayowa J.O., Oladipo A. L., Owolabi M.S.; 2015. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Root, Stem and Leaves of Acalypha indica and Panicum maximum jacq from Three Major Dumpsites in Ibadan Metropolis, South West Nigeria.

Stegmann, Brunner, Calmano, Matz; 2001: ‘Treatment of Contaminated Soil, Fundamentals, Analysis, Applications’, Berlin: London: Springer.

Sonil N.and Jayanthi A.; 2013. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil, African journal of Biotechnology, 12(21), 3099-3109.

Thomas J.L. and David J.E.; 2006: Transport and storage of metals ions in Biology, 7: 57-78

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 2001: Solid Waste and Emergency Response Technology Innovation Office Washington, DC 20460 Brown fields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Clean-up.

WHO; 1996: Permissible limits of heavy metals in soil and plants, (Genava: World Health Organization), Switzerland.

Yao Z., Jinhui L., Henghua X., Conghai Y.; 2012: The 7th International Conference on Waste Management and Technology, Review on remediation technologies of soil contaminated by heavy metals, Procedia Environmental Sciences 16: 722 – 729.

Yin Chan; 2008: Increasing soil organic carbon of agricultural land, PRIMEFACT 735

Author Details

Karangwa Ernest

  • Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development (INRES), Fuculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Google Scholar
  • RAJAR Journal

Obutec. Gordian

Ochekwu E. Bernard